Asian / Pacific Island Nursing Journal

Corresponding Author

Chih-Ling Huang


Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore the characteristics of hardcore smokers who were previously hospitalized.

Study design: A descriptive qualitative design was used to investigate a sample of 29 male Taiwanese smokers.

Methods: Male hardcore smokers were recruited at a hospital in southern Taiwan and their smoking behaviours and attitudes were explored in semi-structured interviews. Inclusion criteria were: (1) smoking at least weekly or daily during the past year, (2) 100 cigarettes during the lifetime, (3) persistent smoking, (4) at least one hospitalization. Audio-recorded interview data were analysed using content categorization of the responses.

Results: Four main themes emerged to describe characteristics of Taiwanese hardcore smokers: (1) physiological and psychological dependence, (2) social interaction and cultural norms, (3) no motivation to quit despite knowledge of negative health consequences, and (4) negative attitudes towards, but compliance with, smoking-free policies.

Conclusions: The results can inform public health nurses of characteristics of Taiwanese hardcore smokers, which in turn develop an effective smoking cessation programs to increase smoking cessation rate among Taiwanese hardcore smokers.

Declaration of Conflicting Interests

The authors declared no potential conflicts of interest concerning the research, authorship, or publication of this article.


This work was supported by Ministry of Science and Technology [grant numbers: 103-2314-B-309-002- MY3].